The non-legal exemption from work recognizes that the law of agreements must give way to labour law if necessary for the collective bargaining process to work. This tacit removal of cartel and abuse of dominance rules in favour of labour policy reflects a preference for the resolution of labour disputes through voluntary agreements (and labour policies) and not through judicial interference (and antitrust rules). The Supreme Court first set the non-legal work exemption in Local Union 189, Amalgamated Meat Cutters – Butcher Workmen of North America v. Jewel Tea Co. In Jewel Tea, employers argued that a term in the collective agreement prohibiting meat market activity for certain hours constitutes a violation of antitrust law. White J.A. held in a plural opinion (p. 217) that the agreement was immune from an antitrust attack, as it “directly and directly” concerned workers and only interfered at tangential or indirect levels of competition in the product market. Goldberg J.A., who wrote a separate multi-dual opinion, stated that the non-legal wage exemption protected all “collective bargaining activities on mandatory bargaining issues under the Labour Act.” Subsequently, the Court clarified the scope and justification of the exemption in Connell Construction Co., stating that “appropriate coherence between congressional policy that promotes collective bargaining under the LNRA and Congressional policy of promoting free competition in corporate markets requires that certain trade union and employer law agreements be granted a limited non-legal exemption from antitrust sanctions” (421 U.S. citizens to 625-626). However, the Court noted that the exemption would not apply if the agreement had significant anti-competitive effects that “obviously would not follow the elimination of competition for wages and working conditions” (421 United States (625-626). In 1982, after the first two games of the season, NFL players went on strike again in an attempt to achieve a guaranteed percentage of the club`s and the league`s revenues.  This strike lasted 57 days, making it the longest work stoppage in NFL history at that time.
 The strike ended with an interim agreement on 16 November, which included funds to cover the shortfall in players` wages during the work stoppage.  Negotiators signed a new collective agreement on December 5.