The Open Skies Treaty came into force on 1 January 2002 and currently has 34 party states. It is implementing a programme of unarmed air surveillance flights throughout the territory of its participants. The treaty aims to strengthen mutual understanding and trust by giving all participants, regardless of size, a direct role in gathering information on military forces and activities that affect them. The idea of allowing countries to openly veil themselves is to prevent misunderstandings (for example. B to assure a potential adversary that his country will not go to war) and limit the escalation of tensions. It also offers countries mutual responsibility to deliver on their contractual promises. The Open Skies is one of the most important international efforts to date to promote the openness and transparency of the armed forces and activities. The concept of “mutual air surveillance” was proposed to Soviet Prime Minister Nikolai Bulganin at the 1955 Geneva Conference by US President Dwight D. Eisenhower; The Soviets, however, immediately rejected the concept and put several years to sleep. The treaty was finally signed in 1989 as the initiative of U.S. President (and former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency) George H. W.
Bush. The agreement negotiated by NATO members and the Warsaw Pact was signed on 24 March 1992 in Helsinki, Finland.  The United States officially withdrew on November 22, 2020.  “Washington has taken its step. Neither European security nor the security of the United States and its allies themselves benefited. Today, many in the West are wondering how Russia will react. The answer is simple. We have repeatedly stressed that all options are open to us,” the department said in a November 22 statement.
The agreement allows the 34 nations parties to carry out aerial reconnaissance on the territory of other countries. The arms control agreement negotiated in 1992 allowed participating nations, including the United States and Russia, to conduct unarmed observation flights over each other`s territory. Each country has an annual quota for the number of flights it must accept and the number of flights it can fly. The United States formally withdrew from the Open Skies Treaty, an agreement that promoted confidence by allowing the 34 participating nations to observe each other`s military through unarmed overflights. “This U.S. measure undermines mutual trust and military transparency between the countries concerned, is not conducive to maintaining security and stability in the regions concerned, and will also have a negative impact on the international arms control and disarmament process,” The Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman said on Monday. , Zhao Lijian, at a daily briefing. In May, Biden mocked Mr. Trump`s decision to withdraw from the treaty and said the United States and its allies are “taking advantage” of the agreement despite Russia`s violations. In 2020, government officials have considered conducting an underground nuclear test. This would run counter to a long-standing testing moratorium that has been respected by the United States, Russia, China, the United Kingdom and France (the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, which would ban all nuclear tests, has not entered into force).